Solving the Byzantine Generals Problem with Virtual Voting

Accordingly, virtual voting solves the Byzantine Generals Problem in the following manner:

  1. The Generals have the ability to gossip between one another (for the sake of maintaining the example of medieval Generals, let us assume they have carrier pigeons able to convey a very narrow set of messages in a one on one manner)
  2. The Generals send their pigeons to random Generals with details of the other messages they have received from other Generals. They also send information of their own intentions. They each record the time of each message received so that between them they are able to construct a picture of when each General saw what
  3. By sending and receiving this information, the Generals build up a picture of what the other Generals are thinking and the time at which all Generals stated their intentions/shared information
  4. Any malicious actors attempting to block information being shared will find that the other Generals are able to share it between themselves anyway, and therefore the malicious General will be circumvented (as long as these malicious Generals make up less than 1/3 of the total). If said malicious General does not arrive at the same event history as the other Generals, they will know that the General is not honest or reliable
  5. Through this the Generals will come to a shared agreement on the correct information and can therefore simultaneously agree upon whether to attack or not and when to do so — without the need to take a formal vote on it
  • A DAG can only guard against double spends if it has visibility of all transactions — which it no longer has — or is told what to trust by a centralized authority
  • Splitting the DAG into many smaller subsets means a malicious attacker needs to control substantially less of the total network power (hashing, or stake or delegated votes) to be able to attack the network




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